The Babylonians invented one of the worlds first callenders, it was a mathematical model in which they could record huge amounts of astronomical events and was even used to time business transactions. They may have invented theses things, all though they did not do it purely for science, they actually did it for horoscopic reasons.
The mayans where just as Intrested in astrogy as well and had a interest in horoscopes as well. But unfortunately all of their documents and texts were destroyed by Spanish conquistadors. We do know that they created the Mayan long count callender which involved the base 20 number system this meant they could predict the rotation of the planets they used this for horoscopes and astrology.
In Rome a Greek astronomer by the name of tallemy, his most famous work was the Ptolemaic system, it stated that earth was the center of the univer this was proven to be obviously wrong. Also hipparticus ( considered to be worlds most famous astronomer) he recorded many stars and invented the procession of the equinoxes, the term for the earths wobble on its around its axis.
Why did tallemy think earth was the center of the universe?
How did hippaticus discover the procession of the equinoxes?
I know now that we take for granted simple like callenders or simple knowledge about space, and that if ancient astronomers didn’t figure these things out we might not of had callenders ect.